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Of patients with aggressive NHL, more than 50% can be cured.The vast majority of relapses occur in the first 2 years after therapy.Patients who present with or convert to aggressive forms of NHL may have sustained complete remissions with combination chemotherapy regimens or aggressive consolidation with marrow or stem cell support.[5,6] Late effects of treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have been observed.Pelvic radiation therapy and large cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide have been associated with a high risk of permanent sterility.[1] For as many as three decades after diagnosis, patients are at a significantly elevated risk for second primary cancers, especially the following:[1-3] Left ventricular dysfunction was a significant late effect in long-term survivors of high-grade NHL who received more than 200 mg/m² of doxorubicin.[4,5] Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia are late complications of myeloablative therapy with autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell support, as well as conventional chemotherapy-containing alkylating agents.[1,6-13] Most of these patients show clonal hematopoiesis even before the transplantation, suggesting that the hematologic injury usually occurs during induction or reinduction chemotherapy.[8,14,15] With a median 10-year follow-up after autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with conditioning using cyclophosphamide and total-body radiation therapy, in a series of 605 patients, the incidence of a second malignancy was 21%, and 10% of those were solid tumors.[16] Successful pregnancies with children born free of congenital abnormalities have been reported in young women after autologous BMT.[17] Some patients have osteopenia or osteoporosis at the start of therapy; bone density may worsen after therapy for lymphoma.[18] A pathologist should be consulted before a biopsy because some studies require special preparation of tissue (e.g., frozen tissue).The Rappaport classification, which also follows, is no longer in common use.As the understanding of NHL has improved and as the histopathologic diagnosis of NHL has become more sophisticated with the use of immunologic and genetic techniques, a number of new pathologic entities have been described.[4] In addition, the understanding and treatment of many of the previously described pathologic subtypes have changed.Within the B-cell and T-cell categories, two subdivisions are recognized: precursor neoplasms, which correspond to the earliest stages of differentiation, and more mature differentiated neoplasms.[9,10] Follicular lymphoma comprises 20% of all NHL and as many as 70% of the indolent lymphomas reported in American and European clinical trials.[1-3] Most patients with follicular lymphoma are age 50 years and older and present with widespread disease at diagnosis.

Although lymph node biopsies are recommended whenever possible, sometimes immunophenotypic data are sufficient to allow diagnosis of lymphoma when fine-needle aspiration cytology is preferred.[1,2] Historically, uniform treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been hampered by the lack of a uniform classification system.

Rearrangement of the Despite the advanced stage, the median survival ranges from 8 to 15 years, leading to the designation of being indolent.[5-7] Patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma are not cured with current therapeutic options.[8] The rate of relapse is fairly consistent over time, even in patients who have achieved complete responses to treatment.[8] Watchful waiting, i.e., the deferring of treatment until the patient becomes symptomatic, is an option for patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma.[9] An international index for follicular lymphoma (i.e., the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index [FLIPI]) [10-12] identified five significant risk factors prognostic of overall survival (OS): Patients with none or one risk factor have an 85% 10-year survival rate, while three or more risk factors confer a 40% 10-year survival rate.[10] In a revised FLIPI-2, an elevated beta-2-microglobulin and lymph node size of more than 6 cm are proposed prognostic factors instead of serum LDH and the number of nodal areas.[13] Although the FLIPI and FLIPI-2 indices can predict progression-free survival (PFS) and OS, the scores cannot be used to establish the need for therapy, nor can they be used to predict response to therapy.[10,13] The primary use of FLIPI or FLIPI-2 is to assure a balance of prognostic factors or to define entry requirements in randomized clinical trials.

Individuals with an adverse FLIPI score may well benefit from watchful waiting or may still respond well to initial therapy.

Knowledge of cell surface markers and immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements may help with diagnostic and therapeutic decisions.

The clonal excess of light-chain immunoglobulin may differentiate malignant from reactive cells.

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Both lymphomas and lymphoid leukemias are included in this classification because both solid and circulating phases are present in many lymphoid neoplasms and distinction between them is artificial.

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